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USD of arteries and veins


(the author’s method of Lushchyk U.B.)

Owing to arterial and venous hemodynamic indexes of the cerebrovascular system firstly discovered and developed by our scientists it became possible to research with the USD method the following aspects:

1) permeability of the brain arteries and veins ;

2) elastic and tonic properties of the arteries and veins;

3) reorganization of arterial and/or venous cerebral circulation;

4) adaptable opportunities of the arterial and venous collateral circulation;

5) individually selected effective and pathogenically substantiated medicine,

6) prognosticate a cerebrovascular disease character depending on reconstruction of the arterial and venous brain circulation in dynamics.

An integrated examination of the brain hemodynamic condition (ultrasound diagnostics, angiography, magneto-resonance angiography of the cerebral vessels enables to:

1) make an objective analysis of patients’ complaints on early stages of diseases in out-patient and in-patient conditions;

2) discover an additional potential of the clinical revealing of a cerebrovascular pathology;

3) study a compensatory potential of the cerebral hemodynamics and its realization in all disease stages of patients at different ages;

4) study a degree of the cerebral hemodynamic reconstruction and reveal the neurological deficiency under influence of medical treatment and angioreconstructive operations;  

5) study the dynamics of a clinical and neurological status and parameters of some instrumental research methods for patients at all periods of treatment.  

Method of a clinical interpretation of USD in arterial and venous cerebral beds by the author’s method of Lushchyk U.B., DM 

(patent of the State Patent Office of Ukraine № 10262 А on 19.07.95

“Way of the ultrasound diagnostics of a condition of the brain vessels”)

We propose to perform a clinical interpretation of dopplerograms by the following directions:    

Condition of the arterial link of blood supply for the brain 

1. Continuity of the arterial blood flow:

 2. Stability of the cerebral circulation:

 3. Lack of the cerebral arterial blood flow

 · According to the location:

· According to expressive signs:

It is the ultrasound dopplerography that helps to reveal the condition of elastic – tonic properties of the arterial wall 

1. Arterial tonus

· Normal tonus is an optimum variant for the stable hemodynamic characteristics;

· Distorted tonus is a risk factor of reducing of the arterial lumen and appearance of the turbulence:

a. Dystonia;

b. Angiospasm:

c. Hypertonus.

2. Elasticity of the arterial wall:

· Preserved – it provides an adequate reaction of the vascular wall on the hydraulic strokes;

· Distorted it causes paradoxical transformations of the hemodynamic picture due to an inadequate reaction of an injured vascular wall:

a. Early signs of aging of the vascular wall;

b. Slightly decreased;

c. Considerably decreased;

d. Of the sclerotic – hypertonic type;

e. Of sclerotic type.

USDG-criteria for the disturbance of functioning of the venous cerebral link, quantitative and qualitative assessment of an adequacy of the venous outflow from the brain; 


· Continuous;

· Intermittent.

1. Venous tonus:

· Preserved – normal tonus;

· Distorted:

1. Hypertonus;

2. Hypotonus;

3. Dystonia:

a Compensatory;

b Subcompensatory;

c Decompensatory with retrograde throwing.

 2. Condition of reserve collateral tracts of the outflow

· Normal;

· Compensatory overload:

1. Adequate;

2. Insufficient.

 Assessment of the sufficiency of the pumping function of the myocardium for blood supply for the brain    

1. Pumping function of the myocardium is:


· Preserved;

· Age physiological;

· Age pathological;

· Reduced in left sections;

· Reduced in right sections.

2. Condition of the heart valve:


· Without any peculiarities;

· Functional insufficiency of the aortic, mitral valve:

1. Moderately expressed;

2. Considerably expressed;

3. Hemodynamically important for the cerebral circulation

 Condition of the arterial-venous-liquor balance and determination of dominating causes of the intracranial hydrodynamic conflict:

 1. Preserved:

· physiological,

· pathological.

2. Distorted and displaced towards:

· arterial hyperemia;

· venous congestion.

 Presence of the pathological arteriovenous shunting:

1. Absent

2. Present:

· According to the location,

· According to the size,

· According to the intensiveness