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Scientific management
Scientific management Print E-mail

Meaning

The term scientific management is the combination of two words i.e. scientific and management. The word "Scientific" means systematic analytical and objective approach while "management" means getting things done through others. In simple words Scientific management means application of principles and methods of science in the field of management. "Scientific management is the art of knowing best and cheapest way". It is the art of knowing exactly what is to be done by whom it is to be done and what is the best and cheapest way of doing it. Scientific methods and techniques are applied in the field of management i.e., recruitment, selection, training, placement of workers and methods of doing work in the best and cheapest way.

The Scientific management can be studied under the following heads:

  • Primary principles of scientific management as evolved by F.W. Taylor.

  • Secondary principles of scientific management.

Definitions of Scientific Management

The main definitions of scientific management are as follows:

According to Fredrick Winslow Taylor, "Scientific management means knowing exactly what you want men to do and seeing that they do it in the best and the cheapest way."

According to Harlow Person, "Scientific management characterizes that form of organisation and procedure in purposive collective effort which rests on principles or laws derived by the process of scientific investigation and analysis, instead of tradition or on policies determined empirically and casually by the process of trial and error."

According to Jones, "Scientific management is a body of rules, together with their appropriate expression in physical and administrative mechanism and specialized executives, to be operated in coordination as a system for the achievement of a new strictness in the control and process of production."

According to Lioyd, Dodd and zynch, In broad outline "Scientific management seeks to get the maximum from methods, men materials machines and money and it controls the works of production from the location and layout of the worker to the final distribution of the product."

According to Peter F. Drucker, " Scientific management is the organized study of work, the analysis of work into its simplest element and the systematic improvement of the workers".
 

Characteristics / Features of Scientific Management

The main characteristics or features of scientific management are as follows:

  • Approach: It is a systematic, analytical and objective approach to solve industrial problems.

  • Economy: The basis of scientific management is economy. For implementing economy, all the unnecessary elements of production are eliminated and a sincere effort is made to achieve optimum production at the minimum cost.

  • A Definite plan: The main characteristic of scientific management is that before starting and work there must be a definite plan before as and the work is to be done strictly according to that plan.

  • Discards old methods: It discards the age old methods of rule of thumb and hit or miss approach.

  • Emphasis: It lays emphasis on all factors of production, men, material and technology.

  • Techniques: It implies scientific techniques in methods of work, recruitment, selection and training of workers.

  • Attempts: It attempts to develop each man to his greatest efficiency and prosperities.

  • Method: It attempts to discover the best method of doing a work at the cheapest cost.

  • A definite Aim: It is another main characteristic of scientific management. Scientific management is the process of organizing, directing, conducting and controlling human activities. Hence there must be a definite aim before the managers, so that the human activities be organized directed conducted and controlled for achieving that aim or aims.

  • changes in attitude: It involves a complete change in the mental attitude of workers as well as the management.

  • A Set of Rules: There must be a set of rules in accordance with the laid plan so that the objectives can be achieved. According to F.W. Taylor, It is no single element but rather the whole combination that constitutes the scientific management.

 

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